Fatty acid composition of breast and thigh meat from light and heavy broilers

Ümran Şahan and Arda Sözcü Department of Animal Science, Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey

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The current research results show that fatty acid composition of of breast and thigh meat varied by increasing of slaughter and carcass weight.

A total of 360 broilers broilers were classified by live weight as light and heavy at age of 42 day. After slaughter, meat samples of breast and thigh were analysed to determine of fatty acid content. The slaugther and carcass weights were found as 2598.3 g and 1961.9 g in light group, 2948.3 g and 2132.0 g in heavy group fatty acid content both breast and thigh meat were found significantly different among groups. Stearic acid, cis 11,14 eicosatrienoic acid, arachidonic acid and nervonic acid of breast meat were found to be higher in heavy broilers (12.74, 1.05, 11.14, 1.36%, respectively) whereas oleic acid, linoleic acid and lignoseric acid (21.84, 20.23, 1.60%) were found to be higher in light broilers. A higher content of pentadecanoic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid of thigh meat (3.55, 19.22, 20.79, 0.95) were observed in light broilers.

The poultry industry has changed significantly on the way genetic improvements, husbandry practices, disease prevention and nutrition. Besides, in parallel with consumer and industry demands, broiler meat quality has being given more importance as well as live broiler performance. Meat quality is generally defined by its chemical, physical, microbial, nutritional, sensory, hygienic and technological characteristics, and it is affected by some factors like slaughter age, sex, feeding practices, handling and slaughter conditions. Breast and thigh muscles of chicken represent the highest proportion of whole carcass and differ in their chemical composition and sensory quality. On the other hand, fatty acid composition of meat is important for human nutrition. Some fatty acids including linolenic acid (18:3n-3), and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) are essential for humans. On the other hand, unsaturated fatty acids have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. So the aim of the current study was to determine the fatty acid composition of breast and thigh meat of light and heavy broilers.

A total of 360 chicks (180 males/females) were obtained from a commercial Ross 308 broiler breeder flock at 52 weeks of age. The chicks were placed in 12 floor pens (n=6 pens per treatment group). The chicks were weighed using a balance at ±0.1 g precision on the 1st day of the growing period and received a starter diet (22.5% CP and ME 12.8 MJ/kg; days 1-14), a grower diet (22.0% CP and ME 13.3 MJ/kg; 15-28), and a finisher diet (21.0% CP and ME 13.5 MJ/kg; days 29-42. Feed and water were offered ad libitum during the growing period. On slaughter day, broilers were classified as light and heavy. Before slaughter, feed was withdrawn 12 h before slaughter at 42 d of age. A total of 30 broilers from each group were individually weighed to determine slaughter weight and then were slaughtered to determine carcass weight. During slaughter process, samples of breast and thigh pieces were collected and stored at −20°C for further fatty acid analysis. Fatty acid analyses were performed with method described by Cherian et al. (2002). The fatty acid contents of the breast and thigh meat were given as percentages of total fatty acids. The Potential For Poultry Production in Developing Countries 207 All data were analysed according to t-test (SAS Institute, 1989). Analyses for percentage data were conducted after a square root of arc sine transformation of the data. Data are presented as means ± SE. In all cases, a difference was considered significant at P≤0.05. Results The slaughter and carcass weight of light and heavy broiler are presented in Table 1. The slaugher and carcass weight were found as 2598.3 g and 1961.9 g in light group, 2948.3 g and 2132.0 g in heavy group, respectively (P<0.01).

The fatty acid content of breast and thigh meat of light and heavy broilers are given in Table 2. As it is expected, fatty acid content both breast and thigh meat were found significantly different among groups. Stearic acid, cis 11,14 eicosatrienoic acid, arachidonic acid and nervonic acid of breast meat were found to be higher in heavy broilers, whereas oleic acid, linoleic acid and lignoseric acid were found to be higher in light broilers. Similar differences were observed for thigh meat in light and heavy broilers. Fatty acid content of breast and thigh meat varied with increasing of slaughter and carcass weight. On the other hand, fatty acid content of breast and thigh meat was also found to be different from each other. Stearic acid was higher in thigh meat, whereas oleic acid was higher in breast meat.

From the Proceedings of the Potential For Poultry Production In Developing Countries, 15 -18 October 2015 , Belek – Antalya